The Brandenburg Gate is Berlin's answer to the Arc de Triomphe. During the cold war, the gate stood behind the wall separating East and West Berlin. Today, there's a Starbucks across the street, and street theater in the square behind the gate.
The Reichstag is the traditional German seat of parlaiment. It was heavily damaged in World War II and sat vacant during the cold war, the capitol at that time being in Bonn. It was refurbished and given a glass dome cupola after unification. The inscription reads "For the German People."
About a block from the Brandenburg Gate is Berlin's Holocaust Memorial, a haunting reminder of the atrocities of World War II.
Checkpoint Charlie is the former border crossing which foreigners used to go between East and West Berlin. Today, the area is very touristy. There's a recreation of the original checkpoint booth, a museum with some interesting exhibits focusing on escape attempts from East Berlin, and the infamous "You are leaving the American sector" sign (also a recreation).
Potsdamer Platz is an area in central Berlin that used to be on the death strip. Today, it has been completely redevloped into a major shopping district. A few pieces of the Berlin wall can still be seen here, in the form of a memorial, and the former path of the wall is deliniated with rows of cobblestone bricks.
The Fernsehturm TV Tower is the second tallest structure in Europe. At the top is an observation deck, and a rotating restaurant. Yes, I went up it.
The remains of this church were retained as a recognizable symbol of the destruction World War II. Surrounded in scaffolding is the new church which was built immediately next to the old one.
These are the remains of a major Berlin train station before the war. Today, behind the remaining facade is a ball park.